How to Create Robust Processes and Products with Design for Six Sigma Memory Jogger by Dana Ginn et al.
What is Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and why do you need it?
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a methodology that aims to create processes and products that meet or exceed customer expectations and achieve six sigma level of quality. Six sigma is a measure of how well a process or product performs, with a goal of having no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. DFSS is different from Six Sigma, which focuses on improving existing processes and products. DFSS is used when creating new processes and products or redesigning existing ones.
Design for Six SIGMA Memory Jogger Dana Ginn
DFSS is based on the principle that quality is designed into a process or product, not inspected or corrected after it is produced. By applying DFSS, you can ensure that your processes and products are robust, reliable, and capable of delivering value to your customers. You can also reduce costs, risks, and waste associated with defects, rework, warranty claims, customer complaints, and lost market share.
The benefits of DFSS for your business
DFSS can help you achieve various benefits for your business, such as:
Enhanced customer satisfaction and loyalty by delivering products and services that meet or exceed their needs and expectations.
Increased competitive advantage and market share by offering innovative and differentiated products and services that stand out from the crowd.
Improved profitability and growth by reducing costs associated with poor quality, such as scrap, rework, warranty claims, recalls, litigation, etc.
Reduced time to market by streamlining the design process and eliminating unnecessary iterations and changes.
Improved collaboration and communication among cross-functional teams by using a common language and framework for design.
Increased employee engagement and empowerment by involving them in the design process and encouraging creativity and innovation.
How to implement DFSS using the DMADV model
One of the most popular models for implementing DFSS is the DMADV model, which stands for Define-Measure-Analyze-Design-Verify. It is a structured and systematic approach that guides you through the design process from start to finish. The DMADV model consists of five phases:
Define the project goals and customer requirements
In this phase, you need to clearly define the scope, objectives, deliverables, timeline, budget, resources, roles, and responsibilities of your project. You also need to identify who your customers are, what their needs and expectations are, what their pain points are, what their preferences are, etc. You can use various tools and methods to collect voice of the customer (VOC) data, such as surveys, interviews, focus groups, observation, etc. You can also use tools such as quality function deployment (QFD) or Kano model to translate VOC data into measurable and prioritized customer requirements, also known as critical to quality (CTQ) characteristics.
Measure the current performance and identify gaps
In this phase, you need to measure the current performance of your existing process or product, or benchmark the performance of your competitors or best-in-class examples. You need to collect and analyze data on key performance indicators (KPIs), such as defect rate, cycle time, customer satisfaction, etc. You also need to compare the current performance with the customer requirements and identify the gaps or opportunities for improvement. You can use tools such as gap analysis, Pareto chart, fishbone diagram, etc. to identify and quantify the gaps.
Analyze the root causes and potential solutions
In this phase, you need to analyze the root causes of the gaps or problems that you identified in the previous phase. You need to use data and facts to support your analysis and avoid jumping to conclusions or making assumptions. You can use tools such as 5 whys, cause and effect matrix, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), etc. to identify and prioritize the root causes. You also need to generate and evaluate potential solutions that can address the root causes and close the gaps. You can use tools such as brainstorming, affinity diagram, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), etc. to generate and select the best solutions.
Design the optimal process or product
In this phase, you need to design the optimal process or product that can meet or exceed the customer requirements and achieve the project goals. You need to use a systematic and creative approach to develop the high-level and detailed design elements, such as features, functions, specifications, components, materials, etc. You can use tools such as design of experiments (DOE), simulation, prototyping, etc. to test and optimize your design. You also need to assess the risks associated with your design and plan for mitigation or contingency actions. You can use tools such as risk matrix, risk register, etc. to identify and manage the risks.
Verify the effectiveness and capability of the design
In this phase, you need to verify that your design is effective and capable of delivering six sigma level of quality. You need to conduct various tests and validations to ensure that your design meets the customer requirements, complies with the standards and regulations, performs reliably and consistently under different conditions, etc. You can use tools such as statistical process control (SPC), capability analysis, control charts, etc. to measure and monitor the performance of your design. You also need to document your design process and results through storyboards, reports, presentations, etc.
The tools and methods for robust processes and products
As you can see from the DMADV model, there are many tools and methods that you can use to implement DFSS effectively. However, it can be overwhelming and confusing to choose the right tool or method for each situation. That's why you need a handy guide that can help you select and apply the appropriate tool or method for your DFSS projects.
The Design for Six Sigma Memory Jogger by Dana Ginn, Barbara Streibel, and Evelyn Varner
One of the best guides that you can use for your DFSS projects is The Design for Six Sigma Memory Jogger by Dana Ginn, Barbara Streibel, and Evelyn Varner. This book is a concise and easy-to-read reference that provides you with a comprehensive overview of DFSS concepts, principles, models, tools, methods, best practices, examples, tips, and tricks.
What is a memory jogger and how to use it?
A memory jogger is a type of book that helps you remember important information quickly and easily. It is not meant to be a textbook or a manual that teaches you everything from scratch. Rather, it is meant to be a supplement or a refresher that joggs your memory when you need it.
You can use a memory jogger in various ways depending on your needs and preferences. For example:
You can read it cover to cover before starting a DFSS project to get familiar with the basics.
You can skim through it during a DFSS project to find relevant information or guidance.
You can refer to it after completing a DFSS project to review your work or prepare for a presentation.
You can keep it handy on your desk or in your bag for quick reference whenever you need it.
The features and contents of the DFSS Memory Jogger
The DFSS Memory Jogger has many features that make it user-friendly and practical for your DFSS projects. Some of these features are:
It is spiral-bound and pocket-sized, so you can easily flip through it and carry it around.
It is organized according to the DMADV model, so you can follow the design process step by step.
It provides clear and concise definitions and explanations of DFSS terms and concepts, so you can understand them easily.
It presents over 40 tools and methods for DFSS, along with their purpose, application, procedure, example, and tips, so you can choose and use them effectively.
It includes tables, charts, diagrams, illustrations, and icons to enhance the visual appeal and readability of the book.
It offers real-world examples and case studies to demonstrate how DFSS works in practice.
It contains checklists, questions, exercises, and quizzes to help you apply and reinforce your learning.
How to apply the DFSS Memory Jogger to your projects
The DFSS Memory Jogger is a versatile and flexible guide that you can adapt to your specific needs and situations. You can use it as a standalone resource or in combination with other sources of information and guidance. You can also customize it to suit your preferences and style. Here are some suggestions on how to apply the DFSS Memory Jogger to your projects:
Use it as a roadmap for your DFSS projects. Follow the DMADV model and use the tools and methods that are relevant for each phase. Use the checklists and questions to ensure that you complete each phase properly.
Use it as a reference for your DFSS projects. Consult it whenever you need clarification or assistance on any aspect of DFSS. Use the index or the table of contents to find the information that you need quickly.
Use it as a learning tool for your DFSS projects. Review it regularly to refresh your memory and deepen your understanding of DFSS. Use the exercises and quizzes to test your knowledge and skills.
Use it as a communication tool for your DFSS projects. Share it with your team members, stakeholders, customers, etc. to explain and illustrate what DFSS is and how it works. Use the examples and case studies to show them the benefits and results of DFSS.
The success stories and best practices of DFSS
DFSS is not a new or unproven methodology. It has been used successfully by many organizations across various industries and sectors for decades. Some of the most well-known examples of DFSS success stories are:
How DFSS helped Motorola, GE, Honeywell, and other companies achieve excellence
Motorola is widely recognized as the pioneer of Six Sigma and DFSS. In the 1980s, Motorola faced intense competition from Japanese companies that offered higher quality products at lower prices. To survive and thrive in the global market, Motorola launched a quality improvement initiative called Six Sigma, which aimed to reduce defects by a factor of ten every two years. As part of this initiative, Motorola developed DFSS as a way to design new products and processes that could achieve six sigma level of quality from the start.
Motorola's efforts paid off handsomely. By applying Six Sigma and DFSS, Motorola improved its quality by 200 times, reduced its costs by 30%, increased its market share by 20%, and won the prestigious Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award twice. Motorola also shared its knowledge and experience with other companies through training and consulting services.
One of the companies that learned from Motorola was General Electric (GE), which adopted Six Sigma and DFSS in the 1990s under the leadership of Jack Welch. GE applied Six Sigma and DFSS to all aspects of its business, from manufacturing to finance to healthcare. GE reported that Six Sigma and DFSS saved it over $10 billion in five years and helped it become one of the most admired companies in the world.
Honeywell is another company that embraced Six Sigma and DFSS in the 1990s. Honeywell used Six Sigma and DFSS to improve its products and processes in areas such as aerospace, automotive, building systems, chemicals, etc. Honeywell claimed that Six Sigma and DFSS generated over $2 billion in annual savings and increased its customer satisfaction by 40%.
Other companies that have successfully implemented Six Sigma and DFSS include Ford, Boeing, Samsung, LG, Sony, etc. These companies have demonstrated that Six Sigma and DFSS can help them achieve excellence in quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, and profitability.
How to avoid common pitfalls and challenges of DFSS
While DFSS can bring many benefits to your organization, it is not a magic bullet that can solve all your problems. DFSS is a complex and challenging methodology that requires careful planning, execution, and management. If not done properly, DFSS can lead to various pitfalls and challenges, such as:
Lack of leadership support and commitment. DFSS requires strong and consistent support and commitment from the top management and the project sponsors. Without their buy-in and involvement, DFSS projects may face resistance, confusion, or indifference from the rest of the organization.
Lack of customer focus and alignment. DFSS is driven by the voice of the customer (VOC). If you do not understand or address the needs and expectations of your customers, your DFSS projects may result in products or processes that are irrelevant, obsolete, or undesirable.
Lack of data and analysis. DFSS is based on data and facts. If you do not collect or analyze sufficient and reliable data, your DFSS projects may suffer from poor decisions, inaccurate assumptions, or invalid conclusions.
Lack of skills and resources. DFSS requires specialized skills and resources, such as trained and certified personnel, appropriate tools and methods, adequate time and budget, etc. If you do not have or provide these skills and resources, your DFSS projects may encounter difficulties, delays, or failures.
Lack of integration and coordination. DFSS involves cross-functional teams and stakeholders from different departments, functions, locations, etc. If you do not integrate or coordinate these teams and stakeholders effectively, your DFSS projects may face conflicts, misunderstandings, or duplication of efforts.
To avoid these pitfalls and challenges, you need to follow some best practices for DFSS, such as:
Obtain leadership support and commitment. Communicate the vision, goals, benefits, and expectations of DFSS to the top management and the project sponsors. Seek their input and feedback on the DFSS projects. Report the progress and results of the DFSS projects regularly.
Focus on customer needs and expectations. Conduct thorough VOC research to identify and prioritize the customer requirements. Validate the customer requirements with the customers themselves. Design products or processes that meet or exceed the customer requirements.
Collect and analyze data and facts. Use appropriate tools and methods to collect and analyze data on the current performance, customer requirements, root causes, potential solutions, design effectiveness, etc. Verify the validity and reliability of the data. Use data to support your decisions and actions.
Provide skills and resources. Train and certify your personnel on DFSS concepts, principles, models, tools, methods, etc. Provide them with the necessary tools and methods for their DFSS projects. Allocate sufficient time and budget for their DFSS projects.
Integrate and coordinate teams and stakeholders. Form cross-functional teams with clear roles and responsibilities for each member. Establish effective communication channels among the teams and stakeholders. Use tollgate reviews to monitor and control the DFSS projects. Document and share the lessons learned from the DFSS projects.
How to sustain and improve your DFSS results over time
DFSS is not a one-time event or a short-term project. It is a continuous improvement process that requires ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and enhancement. To sustain and improve your DFSS results over time, you need to do the following:
Measure and monitor your performance. Use appropriate metrics to measure and monitor the performance of your products or processes that were designed using DFSS. Compare your performance with your customer requirements, project goals, industry standards, etc.
Evaluate your results. Analyze your performance data to evaluate your results. Identify what worked well and what did not work well in your DFSS projects. Determine the strengths and weaknesses of your products or processes that were designed using DFSS.
Enhance your products or processes. Based on your evaluation results, identify opportunities for improvement in your products or processes that were designed using DFSS. Implement improvement actions to address the gaps or problems that you found in your products or processes.
Review your methodology. Based on your evaluation results, identify opportunities for improvement in your DFSS methodology itself. Implement improvement actions to enhance your DFSS concepts, principles, models, tools, methods, etc.
Conclusion and FAQs
ger by Dana Ginn, Barbara Streibel, and Evelyn Varner, you can ensure that your processes and products are robust, reliable, and capable of delivering value to your customers. You can also reduce costs, risks, and waste associated with defects, rework, warranty claims, customer complaints, and lost market share.
Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about DFSS:
Q: What is the difference between Six Sigma and DFSS?
A: Six Sigma is a methodology that focuses on improving existing processes and products by reducing variation and defects. DFSS is a methodology that focuses on creating new processes and products or redesigning existing ones by designing quality into them from the start.
Q: What are the benefits of DFSS?
A: DFSS can help you achieve various benefits, such as enhanced customer satisfaction and loyalty, increased competitive advantage and market share, improved profitability and growth, reduced time to market, improved collaboration and communication, and increased employee engagement and empowerment.
Q: What are the challenges of DFSS?
A: DFSS is a complex and challenging methodology that requires careful planning, execution, and management. Some of the common pitfalls and challenges of DFSS are lack of leadership support and commitment, lack of customer focus and alignment, lack of data and analysis, lack of skills and resources, and lack of integration and coordination.
Q: How can I avoid or overcome these challenges?
A: You can avoid or overcome these challenges by following some best practices for DFSS, such as obtaining leadership support and commitment, focusing on customer needs and expectations, collecting and analyzing data and facts, providing skills and resources, and integrating and coordinating teams and stakeholders.
Q: How can I learn more about DFSS?
A: You can learn more about DFSS by reading The Design for Six Sigma Memory Jogger by Dana Ginn, Barbara Streibel, and Evelyn Varner. This book is a concise and easy-to-read reference that provides you with a comprehensive overview of DFSS concepts, principles, models, tools, methods, best practices, examples, tips, and tricks.